Faculty Scholarship 1994 - Present

Global Trends in Employment Discrimination

In this paper, I examine trends in employment discrimination in 187 countries. My data sources are the 1998 and 2003 editions of Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, published by the U.S. Department of State. Only three countries in the world were found not to discriminate on the basis of gender, race, religion, or ethnicity (Seychelles, Micronesia, and Norway.) Women were discriminated against in 172 countries, and subgroups of men faced discrimination in 138 countries. For the majority of countries, the accounts of employment discrimination in 2003 were word-for-word copies of the 1998 descriptions. Only nine country reports clearly indicated substantial changes in discriminatory practices over this time period. Four of these countries reported that gender-based pay disparities had increased from 1998 to 2003. The overall picture portrayed by the Country Reports on Human Rights Practices is one of pervasive, elaborate, and stable global patterns of employment discrimination.