Faculty Scholarship 1994 - Present

Gender Discrimination in Global Employment, 1994-2004

This paper examines employment discrimination by gender in 187 countries at two points in time: 1994 and 2004, based on reports compiled by the U.S. Department of State. With respect to sex discrimination, no change over time appears to have occured, and it prevails in nine of every ten countries. The nondiscriminatory countries tended to have slower than average GDP growth in 2004, suggesting that their employment policies are not proving to be a great source of international competitive advantage. The data are problematic for many theories of the persistence of global employment discrimination. For example, there are fifteen countries in which women constitute the majority of university students yet are discriminated against in employment.