Endocrine

Disorders of endocrine systems encompass some of the most common problems encountered by practicing physicians, result in substantial morbidity and mortality to patients, and represent a massive economic burden to our society. In the United States, for example, diabetes mellitus affects 11.3% of adults and is the leading cause of kidney failure, non-traumatic lower limb amputations, and new cases of blindness. Adults with diabetes die at twice the rate of non-diabetic adults of the same age. The total U.S. diabetes-related cost is estimated to be $174 billion dollars annually. The Endocrine Sciences portion of the course encompasses a plan of study resulting in a thorough understanding of the principles of hormone action and hormonal systems, and the physiology of the major endocrine systems. Students will learn the pathophysiologic mechanisms by which these systems may become deranged, and how these derangements present clinically in the form of classic endocrine disorders. Students will learn the appropriate approach to patients with endocrine disorders, using diagnostic testing algorithms and pharmacologic agents based on a logical application of their knowledge of endocrine biochemistry, physiology and pathophysiology. Students will also be exposed to the essential anatomy, pathology, histopathology and radiology of normal and abnormal endocrine organs.

Learning modalities: Lectures, readings and case-based small group sessions.

Upon completion of this course, students will be able to:

1. Identify the principles of hormone action and hormonal systems
2. Describe the physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of pituitary disorders
3. Describe the physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders
4. Explain the physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of adrenal disorders
5. Describe the physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of reproductive disorders
6. Explain the physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of disorders of calcium homeostasis.
7. Describe the physiology of bone; and the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of endocrine disorders of bone such as osteoporosis and osteomalacia.
8. Explain carbohydrate metabolism; the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus; and the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of hypoglycemic disorders.
9. Describe the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of carcinoid syndrome and other neuroendocrine tumors.