Urology and Renal Systems

The goal of the renal and urology section will be a 5 week course designed for the student to gain knowledge of the anatomical features (embryological, neonatal and adult) of the uro-renal system, at the gross and histologic levels, and by combining this with their cellular/molecular/ physiological background obtained through the Fundamentals Course and within, develop a basic understanding of its corresponding roles in normal physiology. This will include material directed to metabolic waste removal, electrolyte/acid-base balance, hormonal and blood pressure regulation, fertility, micturition, sexual organ function, and congenital or genetic anomalies. On the backbone of this basic knowledge the student will gain a greater perspective of how dysfunction can lead to pathophysiologic conditions and the most appropriate and informative diagnostic tests that will lead to a rapid, precisely targeted therapeutic approach to normalize patient health. The student should build upon these concepts with self-directed learning and motivation for life-long learning.

Upon completion of this course, students will be able to:

1. Describe the mechanistic basis for the origin of uro-renal anatomy (embryological, developmental, hormonal, congenital, etc.).
2. Understand normal and abnormal uro-renal structure, including benign and malignant pathophysiology.
3. Demonstrate knowledge of the cellular mechanisms involved in renal filtration and transport.
4. Explain the molecular mechanisms that lead to erectile dysfunction, infertility, bladder dysfunction and the consequences of infectious diseases.
5. Describe common approaches to the diagnosis of urologic and nephrologic pathophysiological conditions and the investigative tools that are available, which should include radiologic, laboratory and histopathologic methods.
6. Describe the basic approach and rationale for the treatment and management of uro-renal disease states.
7. Recognize the immense social and economic costs that uro-renal disease places both on the patient and on society.
8. Develop an awareness of systems biology, its interactive nature and its role in disease processes. This should include hormones, malignancies, systemic diseases, immune system, etc.
9. Recognize the influence of race, sex, economic status and environment on uro-renal health.
10. Work collaboratively as part of a team to develop skills in medical problem solving, critical thinking, and self-directed lifelong learning.