Content Area: Math & Science
Unit Title: Measurement
Target Course/Grade Level:  4th grade self contained science class at a private school.
Unit Author:   Anthony Wasacz
Date: December 20, 2010

Unit Summary
This unit will cover different types of measurement using the metric system.  The students will learn how to correctly measure distance, mass, and volume using the appropriate tools. The students will begin by learning how to correctly use a balance to measure the mass of different objects.  They will learn to identify which side of the balance shows a heavier or lighter mass when comparing two objects.  The students will learn how to correctly use a metric ruler, and record the length of objects in centimeters.   Finally, they will be introduced to the concept of volume. They will make measurements of regularly shaped objects, and calculate the volume using length x height x width.  They will also find the volume of irregularly shaped objects by putting the object into a beaker or graduated cylinder and finding the displacement of water.
The students at this class are at a private school for students with learning disabilities, or who are on the autism spectrum.   There is a 4:8 teacher to student ratio.    Three one – on – one aides are part of the class. The students struggle with reading on grade level, comprehension, and writing.  They have had some previous experience with using measuring, but they will need help to make the measurements correctly.

Primary interdisciplinary connections:
Math- The students will use rulers to take measurements of objects in centimeters. They will use a balance to measure the mass of objects.  They will use graduated cylinders and rulers to calculate the volumes of objects.  They will calculate the volume of regularly shaped objects using the formula Volume = (length x width x height).
Technology- The students will use SMART Boards and computers for interactive measurement activities. They will use calculators and rulers to find the volume of regularly shaped objects. They will use a balance and gram cubes to find the mass
Current Events- The studentswill use a bathroom scale to weigh and graph the mass of pumpkins for Halloween.

21st century themes: Global Awareness

Unit Rationale Understanding how to measure and collect data is an important skill for students in both math and science.   This unit will provide the students with ability to collect data by measuring lengths with rulers or meter sticks, as well as measuring the mass of objects using a balance. Students will learn to collect different types of data and work together in groups to take accurate measurements.   This unit can help them to understand the idea of measurement of distance and mass.

Learning Targets

Standards

Common Core Standards

• 1. Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two-column table. For example, know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), ...
• 2. Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.

MDM2

• 2. Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.

4.1.4 A Number Sense
Use real-life experiences, physical materials, and technology to construct meanings for numbers.
4. Understand the various uses of numbers.

• Counting, measuring, labeling.

5. Use concrete and pictorial models to relate whole numbers, commonly used fractions, commonly used fractions, and decimals to each other, and to represent equivalent forms of the same number.

4.2.4D Units of Measurement
4.2.4 E Measuring Geometric Objects.
4.4.4 A Data Analysis

4.2.4D-1 Understand that everyday objects have a variety of attributes, each of which can be measured in many ways.

4.2.4D-2 Select and use appropriate standards of measurement tools to solve real life problems. ‘

• Length – fractions of an inch (1/8, ¼, ½), foot, meter, yards, mile, decimeter, kilometer.
• Volume – cubic inch, cubic centimeter
• Weight – ounce
• Capacity – fluid ounce, cup, gallon, milliliter

4.2.4D-3 Develop and use personal referents to approximate standard units of measure (e.g., a common paperclip is about an inch long.

4.2.4E-3 Measure and compare the volume of three dimensional objects using materials such as rice or cubes

4.4.4A-1 Collect, generate, organize, and display data in response to questions, claims, or curiosity

• Data collected from the school environment

4.4.4A-2 Read, interpret, construct, analyze, generate questions about, and draw inferences from displays of data.

• Pictograph, bar graph, line plot, line graph, table.

Unit Essential Questions

• How can length be measured?
• How can volume be measured?
• How can mass be measured?
• How can data be collected?

How does a balance work?    Unit Enduring Understandings

• Length can be measured as the distance from point A to Point B. It can be measured using meter sticks in metric units (mm, cm, or meters, inches, feet, and yards).
• Volume can be measured using the formula Volume = (length x width x height).
• Mass can be measured on a balance using gram cubes.  Each cube represents one gram.  When the balance is level, an equal amount of mass is on both sides.
• Data such as mass and distance will be collected on data sheets.

Unit Learning Targets
Students will ...

• Be able to measure distance (length width and height of an object).
• Be able to use a balance to measure the mass of an object.
• Identify which object is heavier when comparing the masses of two objects on a balance.
• Calculate the volume of an object using the formula Volume = height x width x length
• Find the volume of an irregularly shaped object using the displacement of water in a beaker or graduated cylinder.

Evidence of Learning
Summative Assessment (X days)
Weekly quiz
End of unit exam
Equipment needed:  Chapter test, weekly quiz, calculators, SMART Board, document camera, meter stick, centimeter ruler, balance, gram cubes, beaker, graduated cylinder, wooden blocks and other objects to measure.

• Teacher Resources:
• Scott Foresman Science, Student Edition.  Pearson / Scott Foresman 2006.
• Green, Carol. Math Explorations and Group Activity Projects. Palo Alto, California: Dale Seymour Publications. 1996.
• National Science Resource Center, Science Technology for Children. Balancing and Weighing, Teacher’s Guide. Burlington North Carolina: The National Academy of Sciences, 1995.

Formative Assessments

• Daily homework and class work
•  Weekly quiz
• Exit tickets
• Student participation in class and group work

Lesson Plans
Lesson
Lesson 1 – Create a balance.
Students will use a ruler and an eraser as a fulcrum and a lever.  They will learn how to measure the relative weights of two objects to determine which object is heavier. They will use pennies as counters to measure the mass of objects.
45minutes each day, over 4 days.

Lesson 2
How to correctly use a balance.
The students will work with a pan balance and gram cubes. They will try to balance different objects on both sides of the balance.  They will practice measuring the mass of objects using gram cubes.  They will graph their data.
45minutes each day, over 4 days.

Lesson 3
The students will use a Smart Board activity to balance two sides of a balance.  This will be a review for their quiz.
http://www.bgfl.org/bgfl/custom/
resources_ftp/client_ftp/ks2/maths/weigh/free.htm
1 45 minute class

Lesson 4
Quiz on measurement
The students will use a balance to find the mass of different objects. They will record their information on the quiz.
1 45 minute class

Lesson 5
Measurement in centimeters.
The students will be introduced to how to use a ruler correctly.  They will practice taking measurements of various objects.  They will continue to review how to measure the mass of each object. Data will be recorded on the data sheet.
45minutes each day, over 5 days.

Lesson 4
Measurement in centimeters
The students will use the internet to make measurements using an interactive program.
http://www.funbrain.com/measure/index.html
One 45 minute class.

Lesson 5
Measurement Quiz
The students will use a ruler to correctly measure the lengths of various objects.  They will record their answers in centimeters.
One 45 minute class.

Teacher Notes:  Students will be placed in ability level groups.   Each group will have the help of a teacher or a one-on –one aide.

Curriculum Development Resources
Click the links below to access additional resources used to design this unit:
www.cast.org/research/udl/index.html